Adenomyosis is a medical condition that occurs when the endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, grows into the muscle wall of the uterus. This can cause the uterus to become enlarged and tender, leading to symptoms such as heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, severe menstrual cramps, pelvic pain, bloating, and pain during intercourse.
The exact cause of adenomyosis is not known, but it has been linked to hormonal imbalances, inflammation, and previous uterine surgery.
Treatment for adenomyosis depends on the severity of the symptoms and the individual's desire for future fertility. Mild cases of adenomyosis may be managed with pain relief medication, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or hormonal medications, such as birth control pills or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.
In more severe cases, a surgical approach may be necessary. A hysterectomy, which is the removal of the uterus, is the only definitive cure for adenomyosis. However, this procedure is not recommended for women who want to have children in the future. Other surgical options, such as uterine artery embolization, may be considered in certain cases.
It's essential to consult with a medical professional to determine the best treatment option for adenomyosis based on individual circumstances.