A uterine polyp is a growth that occurs in the lining of the uterus, also known as the endometrium. These growths are typically benign (non-cancerous) and can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters.
The exact cause of uterine polyps is not known, but they may develop as a result of hormonal changes, or an overgrowth of the endometrial tissue.
Uterine polyps can cause irregular menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding after menopause, and infertility. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all.
The treatment of uterine polyps depends on the size, number, and symptoms of the polyps. Small polyps that are not causing any symptoms may not require any treatment. However, if the polyps are causing symptoms or if they are large, they may need to be removed.
Polypectomy, which is the removal of the polyp, can be done using hysteroscopy. In this procedure, a thin tube with a camera and instruments is inserted through the vagina and cervix and into the uterus to remove the polyp. This can be done under local or general anesthesia.
In some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended if the polyps are large and causing significant symptoms or if there is a concern about cancer.